INSERT INTO

Inserts new rows into a table. You specify the inserted rows by value expressions or the result of a query.

Syntax

INSERT INTO [ TABLE ] table_identifier [ partition_spec ]
    { VALUES ( { value | NULL } [ , ... ] ) [ , ( ... ) ] | query }

Note

When you INSERT INTO a Delta table schema enforcement and evolution is supported. If a column’s data type cannot be safely cast to a Delta table’s data type, a runtime exception is thrown. If schema evolution is enabled, new columns can exist as the last columns of your schema (or nested columns) for the schema to evolve.

Parameters

  • table_identifier

    • [database_name.] table_name: A table name, optionally qualified with a database name.
    • delta.`<path-to-table>` : The location of an existing Delta table.
  • partition_spec

    An optional parameter that specifies a comma-separated list of key-value pairs for partitions.

    Syntax: PARTITION ( partition_col_name  = partition_col_val [ , ... ] )

  • VALUES ( { value | NULL } [ , … ] ) [ , ( … ) ]

    The values to be inserted. Either an explicitly specified value or a NULL. Use a comma to separate each value in the clause. You can specify more than one set of values to insert multiple rows.

  • query

    A query that produces the rows to be inserted. One of following formats:

    • A SELECT statement
    • A TABLE statement
    • A FROM statement

Examples

Single row insert using a VALUES clause

CREATE TABLE students (name VARCHAR(64), address VARCHAR(64), student_id INT)
  PARTITIONED BY (student_id);

INSERT INTO students VALUES
    ('Amy Smith', '123 Park Ave, San Jose', 111111);

SELECT * FROM students;
+---------+---------------------+----------+
|     name|              address|student_id|
+---------+---------------------+----------+
|Amy Smith|123 Park Ave,San Jose|    111111|
+---------+---------------------+----------+

Multi-row insert using a VALUES clause

INSERT INTO students VALUES
    ('Bob Brown', '456 Taylor St, Cupertino', 222222),
    ('Cathy Johnson', '789 Race Ave, Palo Alto', 333333);

SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+------------------------+----------+
|         name|                 address|student_id|
+-------------+------------------------+----------+
|    Amy Smith|  123 Park Ave, San Jose|    111111|
+-------------+------------------------+----------+
|    Bob Brown|456 Taylor St, Cupertino|    222222|
+-------------+------------------------+----------+
|Cathy Johnson| 789 Race Ave, Palo Alto|    333333|
+--------------+-----------------------+----------+

Insert using a SELECT statement

-- Assuming the persons table has already been created and populated.
SELECT * FROM persons;
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+
|         name|                  address|      ssn|
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+
|Dora Williams|134 Forest Ave, Melo Park|123456789|
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+
|  Eddie Davis|  245 Market St, Milpitas|345678901|
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+

INSERT INTO students PARTITION (student_id = 444444)
    SELECT name, address FROM persons WHERE name = "Dora Williams";

SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|         name|                  address|student_id|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Amy Smith|   123 Park Ave, San Jose|    111111|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Bob Brown| 456 Taylor St, Cupertino|    222222|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Cathy Johnson|  789 Race Ave, Palo Alto|    333333|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Dora Williams|134 Forest Ave, Melo Park|    444444|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+

Insert using a TABLE statement

-- Assuming the visiting_students table has already been created and populated.
SELECT * FROM visiting_students;
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|         name|              address|student_id|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|Fleur Laurent|345 Copper St, London|    777777|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|Gordon Martin| 779 Lake Ave, Oxford|    888888|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+

INSERT INTO students TABLE visiting_students;

SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|         name|                  address|student_id|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Amy Smith|    123 Park Ave,San Jose|    111111|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Bob Brown| 456 Taylor St, Cupertino|    222222|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Cathy Johnson|  789 Race Ave, Palo Alto|    333333|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Dora Williams|134 Forest Ave, Melo Park|    444444|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Fleur Laurent|    345 Copper St, London|    777777|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Gordon Martin|     779 Lake Ave, Oxford|    888888|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+

Insert using a FROM statement

-- Assuming the applicants table has already been created and populated.
SELECT * FROM applicants;
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+
|       name|                   address|student_id|qualified|
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+
|Helen Davis| 469 Mission St, San Diego|    999999|     true|
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+
|   Ivy King|367 Leigh Ave, Santa Clara|    101010|    false|
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+
| Jason Wang|     908 Bird St, Saratoga|    121212|     true|
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+

INSERT INTO students
     FROM applicants SELECT name, address, id applicants WHERE qualified = true;

SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|         name|                  address|student_id|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Amy Smith|   123 Park Ave, San Jose|    111111|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Bob Brown| 456 Taylor St, Cupertino|    222222|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Cathy Johnson|  789 Race Ave, Palo Alto|    333333|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Dora Williams|134 Forest Ave, Melo Park|    444444|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Fleur Laurent|    345 Copper St, London|    777777|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Gordon Martin|     779 Lake Ave, Oxford|    888888|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|  Helen Davis|469 Mission St, San Diego|    999999|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|   Jason Wang|    908 Bird St, Saratoga|    121212|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+

Insert into a directory

CREATE TABLE students (name VARCHAR(64), address VARCHAR(64), student_id INT)
    PARTITIONED BY (student_id)
    LOCATION "/mnt/user1/students";

INSERT INTO delta.`/mnt/user1/students` VALUES
    ('Amy Smith', '123 Park Ave, San Jose', 111111);
SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|         name|                  address|student_id|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Amy Smith|   123 Park Ave, San Jose|    111111|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+