INSERT (Databricks SQL)

Inserts new rows into a table and optionally truncates the table or partitions. You specify the inserted rows by value expressions or the result of a query.

Databricks SQL supports this statement only for Delta Lake tables.

Syntax

INSERT { OVERWRITE | INTO } [ TABLE ] table_name [ PARTITION clause ]  [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ] query

Parameters

  • INTO or OVERWRITE

    If you specify OVERWRITE the following applies:

    • Without a partition_spec the table is truncated before inserting the first row.
    • Otherwise all partitions matching the partition_spec are truncated before inserting the first row.

    If you specify INTO all rows inserted are additive to the existing rows.

  • table_name

    Identifies the table to be inserted to. The name must not include a temporal specification.

  • PARTITION clause

    An optional parameter that specifies a target partition for the insert. You may also only partially specify the partition.

  • ( column_name [, …] )

    An optional permutation of all the columns in the table. You can use this clause to map the columns if the columns returned by the query does not line up with the natural order of the column.

  • query

    A query that produces the rows to be inserted. The query must not immediately contain a common table expression.

    You must match the number of columns returned by the query with the columns in the table excluding partitioning columns with assigned values in the PARTITION clause.

    If a data type cannot be safely cast to the matching column data type, a runtime exception is thrown.

    If schema evolution is enabled, new columns can exist as the last columns of your schema (or nested columns) for the schema to evolve.

Examples

Examples for INSERT INTO

Single row insert using a VALUES clause

> CREATE TABLE students (name VARCHAR(64), address VARCHAR(64), student_id INT)
  PARTITIONED BY (student_id);

> INSERT INTO students VALUES
    ('Amy Smith', '123 Park Ave, San Jose', 111111);

> SELECT * FROM students;
      name               address student_id
 --------- --------------------- ----------
 Amy Smith 123 Park Ave,San Jose     111111

Multi-row insert using a VALUES clause

> INSERT INTO students VALUES
    ('Bob Brown', '456 Taylor St, Cupertino', 222222),
    ('Cathy Johnson', '789 Race Ave, Palo Alto', 333333);

> SELECT * FROM students;
          name                  address student_id
 ------------- ------------------------ ----------
     Amy Smith   123 Park Ave, San Jose     111111
     Bob Brown 456 Taylor St, Cupertino     222222
 Cathy Johnson  789 Race Ave, Palo Alto     333333

Insert using a subquery

-- Assuming the persons table has already been created and populated.
> SELECT * FROM persons;
          name                   address       ssn
 ------------- ------------------------- ---------
 Dora Williams 134 Forest Ave, Melo Park 123456789
   Eddie Davis   245 Market St, Milpitas 345678901

> INSERT INTO students PARTITION (student_id = 444444)
    SELECT name, address FROM persons WHERE name = "Dora Williams";

> SELECT * FROM students;
          name                   address student_id
 ------------- ------------------------- ----------
     Amy Smith    123 Park Ave, San Jose     111111
     Bob Brown  456 Taylor St, Cupertino     222222
 Cathy Johnson   789 Race Ave, Palo Alto     333333
 Dora Williams 134 Forest Ave, Melo Park     444444

Insert using a TABLE clause

-- Assuming the visiting_students table has already been created and populated.
> SELECT * FROM visiting_students;
          name               address student_id
 ------------- --------------------- ----------
 Fleur Laurent 345 Copper St, London     777777
 Gordon Martin  779 Lake Ave, Oxford     888888

> INSERT INTO students TABLE visiting_students;

> SELECT * FROM students;
          name                   address student_id
 ------------- ------------------------- ----------
     Amy Smith     123 Park Ave,San Jose     111111
     Bob Brown  456 Taylor St, Cupertino     222222
 Cathy Johnson   789 Race Ave, Palo Alto     333333
 Dora Williams 134 Forest Ave, Melo Park     444444
 Fleur Laurent     345 Copper St, London     777777
 Gordon Martin      779 Lake Ave, Oxford     888888

Insert into a directory

> CREATE TABLE students (name VARCHAR(64), address VARCHAR(64), student_id INT)
    PARTITIONED BY (student_id)
    LOCATION "/mnt/user1/students";

> INSERT INTO delta.`/mnt/user1/students` VALUES
    ('Amy Smith', '123 Park Ave, San Jose', 111111);
> SELECT * FROM students;
          name                   address student_id
 ------------- ------------------------- ----------
     Amy Smith    123 Park Ave, San Jose     111111

Examples for INSERT OVERWRITE

Insert using a VALUES clause

-- Assuming the students table has already been created and populated.
> SELECT * FROM students;
          name                   address student_id
 ------------- ------------------------- ----------
     Amy Smith    123 Park Ave, San Jose     111111
     Bob Brown  456 Taylor St, Cupertino     222222
 Cathy Johnson   789 Race Ave, Palo Alto     333333
 Dora Williams 134 Forest Ave, Melo Park     444444
 Fleur Laurent     345 Copper St, London     777777
 Gordon Martin      779 Lake Ave, Oxford     888888
   Helen Davis 469 Mission St, San Diego     999999
    Jason Wang     908 Bird St, Saratoga     121212

> INSERT OVERWRITE students VALUES
    ('Ashua Hill', '456 Erica Ct, Cupertino', 111111),
    ('Brian Reed', '723 Kern Ave, Palo Alto', 222222);

> SELECT * FROM students;
       name                 address student_id
 ---------- ----------------------- ----------
 Ashua Hill 456 Erica Ct, Cupertino     111111
 Brian Reed 723 Kern Ave, Palo Alto     222222

Insert using a subquery

-- Assuming the persons table has already been created and populated.
> SELECT * FROM persons;
          name                   address       ssn
 ------------- ------------------------- ---------
 Dora Williams 134 Forest Ave, Melo Park 123456789
   Eddie Davis    245 Market St,Milpitas 345678901

> INSERT OVERWRITE students PARTITION (student_id = 222222)
    SELECT name, address FROM persons WHERE name = "Dora Williams";

> SELECT * FROM students;
          name                   address student_id
 ------------- ------------------------- ----------
    Ashua Hill   456 Erica Ct, Cupertino     111111
 Dora Williams 134 Forest Ave, Melo Park     222222

Insert using a TABLE clause

-- Assuming the visiting_students table has already been created and populated.
> SELECT * FROM visiting_students;
          name               address student_id
 ------------- --------------------- ----------
 Fleur Laurent 345 Copper St, London     777777
 Gordon Martin  779 Lake Ave, Oxford     888888

> INSERT OVERWRITE students TABLE visiting_students;

> SELECT * FROM students;
          name               address student_id
 ------------- --------------------- ----------
 Fleur Laurent 345 Copper St, London     777777
 Gordon Martin  779 Lake Ave, Oxford     888888

Insert overwrite a directory

> CREATE TABLE students (name VARCHAR(64), address VARCHAR(64), student_id INT)
    PARTITIONED BY (student_id)
    LOCATION "/mnt/user1/students";

> INSERT OVERWRITE delta.`/mnt/user1/students` VALUES
    ('Amy Smith', '123 Park Ave, San Jose', 111111);
> SELECT * FROM students;
          name                   address student_id
 ------------- ------------------------- ----------
     Amy Smith    123 Park Ave, San Jose     111111